SUMMARY OF THE
Volume 12, No. 2, Summer 2004
A quarterly newsletter
published by Vladimir Linder
Summer issue was published in
May 2004 and it was mailed to 1200 recipients world wide.
Fortified monastery in
FROM THE EDITOR
First of all I would like to
thank to everybody that renewed their subscription on time, then the late
payers that renewed and most of all to our generous donors.
USA DONATIONS: ONDRIS Joseph F., Murray Hill, NJ, $10.00; CHOVANCEK
Ruth, N.Plymouth, MN, $25.00; KOSTIVAL George J., Reading, PA, $10.00;
PAULOCHIK Paul M., O'Fallon IL, $75.00; FREEDMAN John, Torrington, CT,
$5.00; BOLEBRUCH Jane E., Spotswood, NJ, $5.00; PALISCHAK John T. &
Dorothy J., Rosamond, CA, $100.00; CUNNINGHAM, Esther Fojt, TX, $10.00;
BELANSKY Evelyn, PA, $15.00; CUNNINGHAM, Esther Fojt, TX $10.00; BERISH
Paul, Kingston, NY, $100.00.
TOTAL USA DONATIONS US$ 365.00
CANADIAN DONATIONS: DUNAY
John, Tilley, Alberta, $25.00; KRIZAN Igor Dr. and Mrs., Corner Brook,
TOTAL CANADIAN DONATIONS
However there are still many of you
that forgot to renew your subscription and I will be deleting all
non-payers that didn’t renew their subscription since 2000, and there
are 79 of you, prior to publishing the Fall issue. After Fall 2004 issue I
will remove all non-payers from 2001, and there are 40 of you, and after
Winter 2004 issue we will remove all non-payers from 2002 and there are 18
of you. I am sorry but I don’t have bottomless bag with money to finance
the non-paying subscribers.
Our web pages hit a record of 326415 hits in March or this year and we are
getting more hits every month. Countries with the most hits were:
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands,
United Kingdom, Slovak Republic, Switzerland, United
States, USSR (former), Turkey, Poland
You can log in to: www.slovakheritage.org
or www.lindervideo.com. I
have set up special pages for Liptovská Teplička and all their
pension accommodations and everything about Liptovská Teplička is
now at www.liptovskateplicka.com.
Soon I will set up www.slovakgenealogy.com, www.slovakiagenealogy.com
will be in Slovakia from June 9 until August 5 and if you need anything
you can call me on my cell in Slovakia at: 011-421-0907-297-508 or you
can email me at [email protected].
THE MAIL BAG
Please mail the
subscription to Slovak Heritage Live to the address below, and thank you.
I hope to visit Slovakia in October, as my ancestors are from there. I am
a pianist, and hopefully, I will perform a bit there also.
East Cypress Avenue Suite E
year August 2003 I did a 15-day, 6-country train trip (Czech republic,
Germany, Austria, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland). During my overnight stop
in Vienna, I found FIGLMÜLLER and had their plate size Wiener schnitzel.
I also found ZANONI ice cream. Both were very good.
128 Oberlin Ave.
Pochválený buď Pán Ježiš Kristus. Posielam môj šek v sume
$125.00 na obnovenie mojej subskripcii Slovak Heritage Live, You may use
my name in listing donors, aby Slovaci uvideli, že je jeden medzi nimi,
ktorý si váži Tvoju veľkú prácu pre Boha i Národ. Maybe it
will encourage others to be generous in helping you publish Slovak
May you be blest with energy and health to continue bringing us news and
activities from Slovakia. May the good Lord bless you with every grace you
813 Flatbush Road
MY SPRING 2004
I had to many things to do prior to
my departure so as usual I didn’t go to sleep. While checking my Nikon
D100 digital camera I discovered few dust spots on the image sensor. So I
picked up my hand blower and blew air into the compartment and this made
the situation much worst as now my image sensor was covered with much more
dust particles. So I had my work cut out for me for the morning prior to
departure in the afternoon. Early morning I went across the town to Nikon
service depot where a very friendly technician was able to clean the image
sensor in few minutes and they did it at no charge. That was really nice
of the Nikon staff. I rushed home to pack and repack as I always have more
items than I can take so I wont be over weight as the extra weight if you
get charged for it is very expensive. The limit is 70 lbs per suitcase and
I always have a little bit more in each of my two Samsonite oyster shell
suitcases. I managed to squeeze everything into them Got to the Vancouver
International Airport on time. There were no huge lineups. Lufthansa
started to fly a new airplane Air Bus 360-600 a week ago between Frankfurt
and Vancouver. This is the longest commercial passenger airplane in the
world. The plane is very comfortable, spotless, and just beautiful.
This time the service was great as was the food. The entertainment DVD’s
have been all working. We arrived in Frankfurt an hour ahead of schedule
and our arrival gate was still occupied by another plane so we had to
disembark the plane on the far side of the airport and were bussed to the
main terminal. I had now three hours instead of to for my departure for
Vienna. So I went to the Vienna’s departure gate and had a good rest. I
Vienna my friend Raduz Dula was already waiting for me, so we went to
Bratislava and ADVANTAGE CAR RENTALS right away. My car was ready and soon
I went to my hairdresser for hair cut. Since it was Tuesday and my friends
from my youth meet at the pub every Tuesday I went to see them. I only had
non-alcoholic beer, which really tastes like the real thing in Slovakia.
When I got home I took two sleeping pills and slept like a baby till
morning. Got up before 7:00AM went to pick up some money at corner ATM
machine and went to the post office to mail the newsletters to my Slovak
friends. I was also mailing bunch of letters and I have discovered that
Slovak standards for envelopes are different from the ones in Canada or
USA and they wanted to charge me extra 50 cents per letter for oversized
envelopes instead of 30 cents. So I asked the employee for some scotch
tape and I taped every envelope thus making it fit their standards. From
here I went to see Izabela Pažítková the press secretary at the Slovak
National Theater and Slovak Philharmony. Usually it takes me several tries
until I get hold of her. I stop by her office whenever I am
passing by. My sister lives just across Izabela’s office so I went to
visit her as well and to my surprise she gave me my report cards from
Grade one to nine. And I have seen again that I really wasn’t a great
student in those grades.
Late afternoon I went to Liptovská Teplička where I arrived at
10:30. The roads were great all the way to Tatranská Štrba and from
there it was packed snow all the way to Liptovská Teplička...
MONTHLY SALARIES IN SLOVAKIA
While I was in Slovakia, I found
very interesting article about average monthly salaries in different
Slovakia’s regions in Pravda newspaper. You may be shocked how low their
salaries are and the prices for everything in Slovakia are higher then in
North America. The US$ is only about 32.50 SK now, down from 50.00 SK
little over a year ago.
Bratislava region 18877.00 Sk is
Trnava region 13360.00 Sk
is US$ 411.08
Nitra region 12147.00 Sk is US$ 373.75
Trenčín region 12735.00 Sk is US$ 391.84
region 12600.00 Sk is US$ 387.69
Banská Bystrica region 12264.00Sk is US$ 377.35
Košice region 14138.00 Sk is US$ 435.02
Prešov region 11385.00 Sk is US$ 350.31
is very old village with important archeological finds from several
periods. It is mentioned already in 12th century during the danger from
Turks. In the middle of the 16th century they started to build four winged
manor house with corner towers. The construction was never finished and
the third wing was never built. The bastions are in polygon shape. The
overall architecture is Renaissance style with some fragments of the
original stucco still visible. During the 17th century the manor house was
remodeled and in 1776 rebuilt with new stairwell and hallway with idea of
being a strong anti Turkish fortress. It is located in center of Bošany.
VILLAGE AND MANOR HOUSE
oldest written document about Brodzany is from 1293. A typical Slovak
village of the Nitra river basin is recorded under the names of Brogan,
Brogen, or Borogen. Later the names Baragan and Baragyan were also added.
Of interest is the fact that as late as the 17th century the name Brogyan
came into being, referring to the Brogyányi family (the ending yi being
of Hungarian origin).
As it is documented in the first written record of 1293, the name of the
settlement Brogen originated undoubtedly from the word brod referring to
those people who lived by the ford. Archeological remains dating from
the 9th to the 13th centuries give convincing evidence of the existence of
the Old Slavic settlement of Brodzany. Other findings from the
surrounding areas of this village, as well as from the villages of Krásno
and Žabokreky nad Nitrou nearby, all provide further concrete evidence of
its existence in the centuries that followed.
According to J. Stanislav and E. Pauliny, the present name of Brodzany
was derived from “…the root
word brod (“ford”) and suffix jany or any, as was common for place
names that were derived from root words in the early Slavic history of the
territory occupied by the oldest Slavic tribes”. In accordance with the
views of these scholars the following progression can be observed in the
group of consonants: from dj to dž to dz. This seems to suggest the
reliability of the documentation related to Brodzany and its nearest surroundings.
Within this historical context it is noteworthy that the family name of
Brodziansky is always found in the written documents as well as in its
colloquial usage under its Hungarian form, i.e. Brogyanyi. Already
mentioned in 1293 as a class of ruling over the Tekov castle serfs, the
Brodzianskys began to rule over the village as early as the 11th century.
Brodzany was situated in the north westernmost corner of the Tekov region
in the Oslany district...
A FORTIFIED MONASTERY
is a Gothic-Renaisance fortress against Turks and it is former
monastery of Premonstrans. Its beginnings date back to before 1135. It was
founded by Lampert from family Hunt-Poznanyi together with son Nikolas and
wife Zofia, sister of Hungarian King Ladislav. The monastery church was
built in the first half of the 12th century, despite its mention for the
first time in written records in 1285. During the fights between the
followers of Polish Ladislav Jagelovský and Hungarian Elizabeth, local
area was devastated by the soldiers of Jiskra that were stationed in near
by Krupina. During this time the monastery was rebuilt in Gothic Style.
They added a chapel to the old Romanesque single nave church with two
towers in 1444-1446. They also built a new monastery wing and garden of
paradise. The monastery was burned down in 1471 by people from Krupina.
In 1530 Zigmund Balassa attacked the monastery, he evicted the monks and
rebuilt the monastery on grandiose scale to anti Turkish fortress. The
whole former monastery was surrounded by high-fortified wall and four
corner bastions. There was a moat surrounding the fortress.
After 1678 the fortress was repaired and rebuilt in Baroque style by
Estergom’s bishop Juraj Szelepcsényi.
These holdings were managed by Estergom’s Chapter up to 1908 when
they were sold.
LARGE FOLKLORE HEART
IN TINY MUSEUM
by: Vladimir Linder
of the smallest and most original museums in the world is Zvolen’s Kučera’s
Mini Museum. It is well known between Slovak folklorists, but it is well
hidden from non-folklorist public. It is located in an old bachelor’s
one bedroom apartment on the fifth floor of pre fabricated concrete
apartment building in Bukovina, part of Zvolen where this folklore
enthusiast lives. Forty-five years old Tibor Kučera, owner, manager,
custodian, and lector in the same person sacrificed for folklore and later
also for collection of folklore artifacts pretty well forty years of his
started with folklore as a little boy, when they enrolled me in dance
section of Folk school of art in Zvolen,” starts to look into past
bearded, longhaired Tibor. “We had an experienced teacher and
choreographer Maria Mázor and since she was (and still today is) well
known folklorist, she established children folklore group ZORNIČKA
(Morning Star). She thought us love for folklore that we carried with us
further in life. Well, I liked hockey as well, as Zvolen is a hockey
town. But they put me most of the time to be a goalie, where I was
always cold. I didn’t like it, so at the end the dancing and
folklore has won. Somewhere there are also the beginnings of my mini
folklore museum. When we went with our folklore group to perform at
different festivals, I would always buy myself a souvenir. Small
jingle bell, pin, wooden figurine, or pitcher...
ART HISTORY OF SLOVAK FINE ART
21, 2003 – March 21, 2004
the most valuable works of the history of art in Slovakia come from the
period between 1250 and 1550. For over one hundred years, such
personalities as Master Paul of Levoča and Master MS, or
constructions of churches in Košice, Bardejov and Bratislava, have
attracted attention of art historians and the public who had the last
opportunity to appreciate the high standard of Slovak Gothic art at the
representative exhibition in Prague in 1937. Many Gothic artifacts of
Slovak provenance have been kept in foreign institutions, inaccessible
archives as well as private and church collections. However, thanks to new
discoveries in recent years, it was possible to present other, hitherto
unknown, works of art, or modify earlier professional opinion after their
restoration and conservation.
Within the cycle of History of Slovak Fine Arts, the Slovak National
Gallery in co‑operation with the City Museum in Bratislava presents
an exhibition, a popular scientific publication and also organizes an
international conference under a simple title ‑ Gothic art. In
co‑operation with domestic and foreign archives, museums and
galleries, and thanks to the readiness of many Church property owners, we
have the ambition to show well‑known panel paintings and sculptures,
but also to offer a fresh view on their context within the culture of
NATIONAL NATURE MONUMENT
is situated on the southwestern edge of the Silická Plateau in the
Slovak Karst, 10 km to the southwest of Plešivec, near the borders with
Hungary. Domica Cave is a pearl of the National Nature Reserve Domické
škrapy (Domické Karren) in the Protected Landscape Area and Bio
Spherical Reserve of the Slovak Karst. Entrance to the cave is at the
southern foothill of Domica Hill, 339 meters above the sea level.
It was formed in the Middle Triassic Wetterstein limestones of the Silický
nape along the tectonic faults, by underground streams of Styx and Domica
at three developmental levels. Overall cave length is 5,080 meters. The
lowest part is filled with gravel
and loam. It forms a genetically compact entity, about 25 km in
length, together with the Baradla Cave in Hungary...
FOLK FESTIVALS 2004
TURČIANSKE SLÁVNOSTI FOLKLÓRU
20. TURIEC FOLKLORE FESTIVAL
will be the 20th year of Turiec celebration of folklore. Turiec is a
county in north central part of Slovakia that covers large territory
around the town of Martin. Information: 011-421-43-413-2394
ZAMAGURSKÉ FOLKLÓRNE SLÁVNOSTI
ZAMAGURIE FOLKLORE FESTIVAL
festival of under Tatras region in Červený Kláštor with
international participants. Information: 011-421-52-772-2466
FOLKLÓRNE SLÁVNOSTI MYJAVA 2004
45. FOLK FESTIVAL MYJAVA 2004
year of international folklore festival-member CIOFF. Presentation of folk
art from western Slovakia region with participation of folklore groups
from whole Slovakia and abroad. Myjava is in Western Slovakia on the South
side of White Carpathian Mountains and about 4 miles from Moravian border.
Information: Dom kultúry
s.r.o., Partizánska 290/17, 907
01 Myjava, Information: 011-421-34-621
ŠARIŠŠKÉ FOLKLÓRNE SLÁVNOSTI IN RASLAVICE
35. ŠARIŠ FOLKLORE CELEBRATIONS IN RASLAVICE
is a folk group Raslavičan here, just great and this festival is
great as well.
SLÁVNOSTI KULTÚRY RUSÍNOV-UKRAJINCOV SLOVENSKA-SVIDNÍK
FESTIVAL OF RUTHENIANS AND UKRAINIANS-SVIDNÍK
A HOREHRONSKÉ DNI SPEVU A TANCA
AND UPPER HRON FESTIVAL OF SONGS AND DANCES
39th Folk festival of Upper Hron days of songs and dances in Heľpa
central Slovakia. Information:011-421-48-412-5206
FOLKLÓRNY FESTIVAL STRÁŽNICE
INTERNATIONAL FOLK FESTIVAL STRÁŽNICE
59th year of the Strážnice international festival. This also will be the
seventh year of the central European folk festival CIOFF.
OUR JOHN, OUR JOHN
folk customs coupled with magical rituals original to traditional, simple
folk environment. Performances of different folk groups. Museum of liptov
village, Pribylina. Information 011-421-44-522-2485
FOLK FESTIVAL VÝCHODNÁ
will be its 50th year of the festival. Only the best folk dance
and folk singing groups of Slovakia perform at this festival. The
festival has also international participation of non-Slovak folk dance
groups. Information: 011-421-2-529-14114
CYRIL AND METHODIUS DAY
Castle, July 5
SLÁVNOSTI POD POĽANOU, DETVA
FOLK FESTIVAL UNDER POĽANA, DETVA
will be the 39th year of the festival. Main emphasis of the festival is to
show the folklore and folk traditions of this central Slovakia region,
with guest performances of groups from around Slovakia. On Sunday
morning traditionally, there is a program called “Sunday with our
countrymen.” and Slovak groups from around the world perform alongside
with Slovak groups. Information: 011-421-45-545-5202
VELKÁ NAD VELIČKOU-MORAVIA
nad Veličkou is about 8 miles North of Myjava in Moravia in the Czech
republic. This is a festival of festivals and musicians play here almost
nonstop for three days.
STARÝCH NÔT FUJÁR
REMEMBERING THE OLD NOTES OF FUJARAS
Slovakia performance of fujara players in honor of the dean of Detva’s
fujara players Jožka
Korytárky, house of
culture and Roman Catholic Church
Information: Spolok slovenských fujarášov, Roman Malatinec, Korytárky
313, 962 04 Korytárky, phone: 011-45-546-62 44, cell
011-421-905-869-576 email: [email protected]
ROČNÍK MEDZINÁRODNÉHO FOLKLÓRNEHO FESTIVALU
JÁNOŠÍKOVE DNI 2004
YEAR OF INTERNATIONAL FOLKLORE FESTIVAL
was four summers ago and it was great. Many groups from the region are
performing at this festival. Information: 011-421-41-569-5129
FOLKLÓRNY FESTIVAL POD KRÁĽOVOU HOĽOU
IX. FOLKLORE FESTIVAL UNDER KRÁĽOVÁ HOĽA
LIPTOVSKÁ TEPLIČKA 2004
is the ninth year of a truly fantastic festival with everyone in the
village joining in. Groups from both sides of Kráľová Hoľa,
Liptov, Spiš and Upper Hron and different regions of Slovakia and always
at least one group from abroad participate. Information:
Miestne kultúrne stredisko, Gabriela Bohunčáková, 059 40 Liptovská
011-421-52-779-8110, email: [email protected]
PODROHÁČSKE FOLKLÓRNE SLÁVNOSTI ZUBEREC-BRESTOVÁ
folklore is the theme here. Location is close to the open-air museum in
Zuberec-Berestová. This is a small but very nice festival with
international participation. Information: 011-421-43-586-4928
KOKAVA NAD RIMAVICOU
is the fourteenth year of festival of young folklorists with a lot of
innovative ideas. Small, but great. The villagers open their house
courtyards and people sing and dance in them all night long after the
official festival programs. This is a great festival. Information:
OF OLD SLAVIC LANGUAGE UNDER KRAĽOVA
POD KRÁĽOVOU HOĽOU V TELGÁRTE
festival of folk and sacral songs. Place: Telgárt, Greek-catholic church,
Kráľova Hoľa, house of culture; Dobšiná, Rožňava,
Poprad, Brezno, Gemerská Poloma, Šumiac. Information: Mária Knižková,
Základná škola, 976 73 Telgárt, 011-421-48-619-46 01
IX. HONT’S PARADE HRUŠOV
is a regional festival of the Hont region. Meeting
with the traditional culture in the frame of agro tourism. Folklore
programs are a part of sampling or the traditional ways activities such as
bread baking, wood working, sampling of pear brandy, working with hay,
traditional cooking, open folk scene, horseback riding and many more.
amphitheater, house of culture, and the whole village.
Information 011-421- 47-488 –0122
FOLKLORE FESTIVAL REJDOVÁ 2004
year of presentation of folklore, folk customs, traditions and folk crafts
from Gemer ant other regions of Slovakia and from abroad..
information about the festivals is deemed to be correct, but is not guaranteed.
Please phone ahead before making your final arrangements to participate
Mária Mázorová, Kliment
Ondrejka and colleagues
book is in Slovak.
contains:Map of folklore regions of Slovakia
choreographies and songs including music sheets from following regions:
LIPTOV, GORAL, PODPOĽANIE, MYJAVA, ŠARIŠ and SPIŠ, NITRA and TEKOV,
HONT, NOVOHRAD and ZVOLEN, TRENČÍN and KYSUCE, PODUNAJ and ZÁHORIE.
text is supplied with 106 color photographs, 159 black and white
photographs of the folk dress, folklore groups, prominent dancers and
musicians in the authentic version; 388 black and white photographs of the
dance motives performed by the members of some outstanding ensembles, 174
songs and folk scores, the folklore map of the Slovakia.
work The Slovak folk dances is the complex and systematic publication from
the sphere of the Slovak dance folklore and with it close associated kinds
of the folk art, which were developing together with the dance, were
influencing each other and formed often one entirety.
work is the result of the needs and requirements of all those who are
concerned with the folk dance and the folk art. It represents the picture
of the past expressing that the Slovak folk dance and the folk art have
kept substantially the form of the classic art because their
characteristic elements can be found in all periods of the development and
are preserved until the present time.
With the aim of saving our cultural heritage (folk dance, music, songs,
dress) for the contemporaries and the future generations in its full
beauty, the authors pass to the readers with high professionalism their
life long knowledge and experiences acquired in research and professional
work in the folk ensembles.
the first chapters of the book the general characteristics of the dance
folklore, the musical folklore and the folk dress in the Slovakia is
presented so as their samples have been preserved for us since the old
times until those of the beginning of the 20th century.
In the next part twenty folklore regions are presented in detail: the
regions of Zemplín, Gemer and Horehronie, Liptov, Tatra’s highlanders,
Poľana, Myjava, Šariš, Spiš, Nitra, Tekov, Orava, Turiec, Hont,
Novohrad, Zvolen, Trenčín, Kysuce, Danube lowlands and Záhorie. The
complete typical picture of the separate regions is offered. The location,
settlement, the survey of many known dances, descriptions of the dances,
musical folklore, folk dress. At those regions where the most peculiar
Slovak dances originated, also the detailed descriptions of the dance
motives are given.
work is intended for all who admire the folk dance, especially for the
dancing masters, young people who attend dancing schools, the amateur and
professional dance ensembles. It will be of good use for the
choreographers, dress designers and for all those who are engaged in the
folklore and want to acquire further professional knowledge and experience
in this sphere. But certainly it will please everybody who is interested
in the beauty of the Slovak folklore, its richness and variety.
believe that the book will inspire all its readers with admiration for the
creation of unknown folk artists of the long and the recent past. At the
same time it will help all bearers of the traditions to keep and propagate
the most beautiful jewels of the Slovak national culture.
The hard cover book is
Very limited quantities
US$99.50 plus US$10.95
shipping and handling
TOTAL PRICE US$109.95
mail personal check to:
Burnaby BC V5C 1P6 Canada
book is in English
The book (350 pages) is divided into two sections.
first section, the calendar, presents Slovak history from the first
evidence about human beings on Slovak territory up to the events that took
place in 1998 with notations summarizing important historical events and
The second section is an encyclopedic dictionary with three hundred
alphabetically arranged entries characterizing the most important
concepts, institutions, and events. It includes genealogical tables of the
longest reigning dynasties on the Hungarian throne, a list of all rulers
and presidents of states to which the lands of Slovakia belonged (Great
Moravia, the Kingdom of Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Slovakia).
Six historians from Bratislava prepared this chronology of Slovak history
(J. Bartl, V. Segeš, V. Čičaj, D. Škvarna-main author, R. Letz
and M. Kohútová).
It is said that the way to the knowledge of the present leads through a
knowledge of the past. Therefore, this book can be recommended to all
readers, who are interested in the Slovak history as well as to those, who
are involved in genealogical research.
We can only welcome this book trying to fill the gap because until now,
Slovak history was not sufficiently covered and to a very limited extent
in the English language.
It is not frequent to mention the translator’ s name, but an exception
in this case is allowed, thank you David P. Daniel for your excellent
by Miroslava Dulová
BOOK IS AVAILABLE NOW
plus US$5.95 shipping and
Please mail personal check to
3804 Yale Street
Burnaby, BC, V5C 1P6, CANADA
DICTIONARY OF THE SLOVAK LANGUAGE
This illustrated dictionary is
intended for each and everybody with the intention to improve his or her
knowledge of the Slovak language.
includes approximately 3 000 selected words, more than the basic
The dictionary is divided into
six individual titles and accompanied by a register at the end.
individual titles are:
People and their surroundings
Leisure and sport
Art and science
book is available now. Cost is US$25.95.
Please mail personal check to
3804 Yale Street
Burnaby, BC, V5C 1P6, CANADA
For FREE sample issue of
The Slovak Heritage Live Newsletter
please send in or email your postal address to:
3804 Yale Street
Canada, V5C 1P6
This limited time offer is good
only in North America
TO SLOVAK HERITAGE LIVE MAIN PAGE
Copyright © Vladimir Linder 2004
Street, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5C 1P6
The above article and photographs may not be copied, reproduced,
republished, or redistributed by any means including electronic, without
the express written permission of Vladimir
Linder. All rights